General information about Mercury
- Mercury is the planet closest to the Sun (the first planet in the Solar System).
- Mercury belongs to the terrestrial planets and is named after the ancient Roman god of commerce. Mercury has no natural satellites. Has a very rarefied atmosphere.
- Mercury has been known to humans since ancient times.
- Mercury's only neighbor is Venus.
- Mercury has a large iron core, which makes up 83% of the volume and 60% of the planet's mass and is the source of the magnetic field.
- The core of Mercury is surrounded by a silicate mantle about 550 kilometers thick. The thickness of the planet's crust ranges from 100 to 300 kilometers.
- The surface of Mercury is dotted with impact craters from the impact of meteorites and comets and resembles the surface of the Moon.
- Due to its close proximity to the Sun, Mercury is difficult to observe from the Earth's surface.
Orbit of mercury
- The average distance of Mercury from the Sun is just under 58 million kilometers (0.38 astronomical units).
- The planet makes one revolution around the Sun in 88 Earth days.
- The average speed of movement of Mercury in orbit is 48 kilometers per second.
- Perihelion (orbital point closest to the Sun): 46 million kilometers (0.31 astronomical units).
- Aphelios (orbital point farthest from the Sun): 69.8 million kilometers (0.47 astronomical units).
- The length of a day on Mercury is 58.65 Earth times.
Physical characteristics of Mercury
- Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system.
- The radius of Mercury is only 2,440 kilometers (38% of the Earth's radius), which is less than the radius of Ganymede (satellite of Jupiter) and Titan (satellite of Saturn).
- The temperature on the surface of Mercury ranges from −190 ° C to + 430 ° C. The solar side warms up much more than the polar regions and the far side of the planet.
- Mercury has a magnetic field, the strength of which is about 100 times less than the earth's.
- Mercury is the second densest (after Earth) planet in the solar system.
- The acceleration due to gravity on Mercury is 3.7 meters per second squared (0.377 g).
- The surface area of Mercury is 74,797,000 square kilometers (approximately 14.7% of the Earth's surface).
- The mass of Mercury is 3.3010 x 10 x 23 kilograms, which is about 5.5% of the mass of the Earth.